Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification MCQs

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Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological

Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification MCQs
Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification MCQs

Classification MCQs SET(A)

1) Sac fungi include
(a) Penicillium and yeast
(b) Ustilago and Puccinia
(c) Alternaria and Trichoderma
(d) Colletotrichum and yeast
Answer: Penicillium and yeast

2) Claviceps is a member of
(a) Ascomycetes
(c) Zygomycetes
(b) Basidiomycetes
(d) Phycomycetes
Answer: Ascomycetes

3) Which of the following are the commonly known forms of Basidiomycetes?
(a) Mushrooms
(b) Puftball
(c) Bracket fungi
(d) All of these
Answer: All of these

4) Where do the members of Basidiomycetes occur?
(a) soil
(b) logs
(c) tree stumps and living plant bodies
(d) All of the above
Answer: All of the above

5) Which of the following are the common parasites of class Basidiomycetes?
(a) Ustilago and Puccinia
(b) Agaricus and Trichoderma
(c) Alternaria and Colletotrichum
(d) Colletotrichum and Puccinia
Answer: Ustilago and Puccinia

6) In Basidiomycetes, the mycelium is
(a) branched and aseptate
(b) branched and septate
(c) unbranched and septate
(d) coenocytic
Answer: branched and septate

7) All of the following fungi belong to Basidiomycetes, except
(a) Agaricus
(b) Ustilago
(c) Puccinia
(d) Alternaria
Answer: Alternaria

8) In Basidiomycetes, vegetative reproduction occurs by
(a) endospores
(b) conidia
(c) akinetes
(d) fragmentation
Answer: fragmentation

9) Among rust, smut and mushroom, all the three
(a) are pathogens
(b) are saprobes
(c) bear ascocarps
(d) bear basidiocarps
Answer: bear basidiocarps

10) In Deuteromycetes, the mycelium is
(a) septate and branched
(b) septate and unbranched
(c) coenocytic
(d) multinucleated
Answer: septate and branched

11) Which of the following would appear as the pioneer organisms on bare rocks?
(a) Liverworts
(b) Mosses
(c) Green algae
(d) Lichens
Answer: Lichens

Class 11 Bio Chapter 2 Biological Classification MCQs SET (B)

1) In fungi, karyogamy is the fusion of two
(a) gametes
(b) nuclei
(c) cells
(d) cytoplasm
Answer: nuclei

2) Which of the following is the correct sequence of three steps in the sexual cycle of fungi?
(a) Mitosis→ Karyogamy→ Meiosis
(b) Meiosis → Karyogamy→ Plasmogamy
(c) Karyogamy→ Meiosis→ Plasmogamy
(d) Plasmogamy→ Karyogamy→ Meiosis
Answer: Plasmogamy→ Karyogamy→ Meiosis

3) In some fungi, two haploid cells result in a diploid cell. In some cases, the dikaryon stage occurs when two nuclei are present within a cell. This phase is known as
(a) monokaryophase
(b) dikaryophase
(c) plasmogamy
(d) karyogamy
Answer: dikaryophase

4) Dikaryophase of fungus occurs in
(a) Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes
(b) Phycomycetes and Ascomycetes
(c) Phycomycetes and Basidiomycetes
(d) Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes
Answer: Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes

5) Fungi are divided into four classes based on
(a) morphology of the mycelium
(b) mode of spore formation
(c) fruiting bodies
(d) All of the above
Answer: All of the above

6) Which of the following classes consists of coenocytic, multinucleate and aseptate mycelium?
(a) Basidiomycetes
(b) Ascomycetes
(c) Phycomycetes
(d) Deuteromycetes
Answer: Phycomycetes

7) Branched, aseptate, coenocytic mycelium is present in
(a) Aspergillus
(b) Albugo
(c) Penicillium
(d) Erysiphe
Answer: Albugo

8) In Phycomycetes, asexual reproduction occurs by
(a) zoospores
(b) aplanospores
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) conidia
Answer: Both (a) and (b)

9) Isogamous means gametes
(a) similar in morphology
(b) similar in anatomy
(c) the female gamete is bigger than the male gamete
(d) the male gamete is bigger than the female gamete
Answer: similar in morphology

10) Which of the following is a parasitic fungus on mustard?
(a) Rhizopus
(b) Albugo
(c) Agaricus
(d) Neurospora
Answer: Albugo

11) Which of the following are the most suitable indicators of SO₂ pollution in the environment?
(a) Lichens
(b) Conifers
(c) Algae
(d) Fungi
Answer: Lichens

Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification MCQs SET(C)

1) Which of the following statements is correct?
(a) Slime moulds are haploid
(b) Protozoans lack a cell wall
(c) Dinoflagellates are immotile
(d) Pellicle is absent in Euglena
Answer: Protozoans lack a cell wall

2) Flagellate protozoans are
(a) free-living only
(b) parasites only
(c) either free-living or parasites
(d) saprophytes
Answer: either free-living or parasites

3) Which of the following is a flagellated protozoan?
(a) Amoeba
(b) Entamoeba
(c) Plasmodium
(d) Trypanosoma
Answer: Answer: Trypanosoma

4) Trypanosoma causes
(a) sleeping sickness
(b) cholera
(c) malaria
(d) food poisoning
Answer: sleeping sickness

5) Paramecium is an aquatic and actively moving organism due to the presence of
(a) pseudopodia
(b) false feet
(c) thousands of cilia
(d) flagella
Answer: thousands of cilia

6) Which of the following groups always produce an infectious spore-like stage in their life cycle?
(a) Amoeboid protozoans
(b) Ciliated protozoans
(c) Flagellated protozoans
(d) Sporozoans
Answer: Sporozoans

7) Plasmodium is a
(a) ciliated protozoan
(b) sporozoan
(c) flagellated protozoan
(d) amoeboid protozoan
Answer: sporozoan

8) The body of a fungus is made up of several elongated, tubular filaments called
(a) hyphae
(b) worn bodies
(c) mycelium
(d) thallus
Answer: hyphae

9) Which of the following is a non-hyphal unicellular fungus?
(a) Yeast
(b) Puccinia
(c) Ustilago
(d) Alternaria
Answer: Yeast

10) Which of the following options describes the coenocytic condition in fungus?
(a) Uninucleate hypha without septum
(b) Multinucleate hypha without septum
(c) Multicellular hypha
(d) Multiciliate hypha
Answer: Multinucleate hypha without septum

11) The benefit given by algae in a lichen is
(a) food for fungi
(b) shelter
(c) mineral absorption
(d) protection
Answer: food for fungi

Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification MCQs SET(D)

1) Cyanobacteria are classified under which of the following kingdoms?
(a) Protista
(b) Monera
(c) Algae
(d) Plantae
Answer: Monera

2) Select the wrong statement.
(a) Bacterial cell wall is made up of Plasma Membrane
(b) Pili and fimbriae are mainly involved in the motility of bacterial cells
(c) Cyanobacteria lack flagellated cells
(d) Mycoplasma is a wall-less microorganism
Answer: Pili and fimbriae are mainly involved in the motility of bacterial cells

3) Some bacteria thrive in extreme environmental conditions such as the absence of oxygen, high salt concentration, high temperature and acidic pH. Identify the type of bacteria.
(a) Cyanobacteria
(b) Eubacteria
(c) Archaebacteria
(d) Mycobacteria
Answer: Archaebacteria

4) Which of the following conditions would be favoured by thermoacidophiles?
(a) Hot and alkaline
(b) Snow and acidic
(c) Hot and sulphur spring
(d) Gut of cows
Answer: Hot and sulphur spring

5) The primitive prokaryotes responsible for the production of biogas from the dung of ruminant animals, include the
(a) thermoacidophiles
(b) methanogens
(c) eubacteria
(d) halophiles
Answer: methanogens

6) Methanogens belong to
(a) eubacteria
(b) archaebacteria
(c) dinoflagellates
(d) slime moulds
Answer: archaebacteria

7) Eubacteria include
(a) blue-green algae and bacteria
(b) archaebacteria and blue-green algae
(c) cyanobacteria and eukaryotes
(d) bacteria and eukaryotes
Answer: blue-green algae and bacteria

8) Pigments containing membranous extensions in some cyanobacteria are
(a) heterocysts
(b) basal bodies
(c) pneumatophores
(d) chromatophores
Answer: chromatophores

9) The cyanobacteria are also referred to as
(a) protists
(b) golden algae
(c) slime moulds
(d) blue-green algae
Answer: blue-green algae

10) In cyanobacteria, which of the following is present?
(a) Chlorophyll-c
(b) Chlorophyll-b
(c) Chlorophyll-a
(d) Chlorophyll-c₁
Answer: Chlorophyll-a

11) Aristotle classified the plants based on their morphological characters and categorized them into
(a) trees, shrubs, and herbs
(b) algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms
(c) embryophytes and tracheophytes
(d) algae and embryophytes
Answer: trees, shrubs, and herbs

Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification MCQs SET(E)

1) Some of the cyanobacteria can fix atmospheric nitrogen in their specialised cells called
(a) akinetes
(b) heterocyst
(c) endospores
(d) homocyst
Answer: heterocyst

2) Nostoc and Anabaena belong to
(a) parasitic bacteria
(b) archaebacteria
(c) cyanobacteria
(d) cocci bacteria
Answer: cyanobacteria

3) Which of the following is photoautotrophic bacteria?
(a) Nostoc
(b) Clostridium
(c) Salmonella
(d) Escherichia coli
Answer: Nostoc

4) Which of the following bacteria play an important role in recycling nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, iron and sulphur?
(a) Chemoheterotrophic bacteria
(b) Chemosynthetic autotrophic bacteria
(c) Parasitic bacteria
(d) Saprophytic bacteria
Answer: Chemosynthetic autotrophic bacteria

5) Citrus canker is a
(a) viral disease
(b) bacterial disease
(c) fungal disease
(d) protozoan disease
Answer: bacterial disease

6) Mycoplasmas are classified under which of the following kingdoms?
(a) Animalia
(b) Protista
(c) Monera
(d) Fungi
Answer: Monera

7) Which of the following is not a character of Protista?
(a) Protists are prokaryotic
(b) Some protists have cell walls
(c) None of these
(d) Body organisation is cellular
Answer: Some protists have cell walls

8) Which of the following kingdoms do have not well-defined boundaries?
(a) Plantae
(b) Protista
(c) Monera
(d) Algae
Answer: Protista

9) Members of Protista are primarily
(a) terrestrial
(b) aquatic
(c) pathogenic
(d) photosynthetic
Answer: aquatic

10) Diatoms and desmids are found in
(a) freshwater
(b) marine water
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) terrestrial habitat
Answer: Both (a) and (b)

Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification MCQs SET(F)

1) Specialised cells called heterocysts are present in
(a) dinoflagellates
(b) chrysophytes
(c) archaebacteria
(d) cyanobacteria
Answer: cyanobacteria

2) Silica gel is obtained by
(a) red algae
(b) diatoms
(c) Euglena
(d) mycoplasma
Answer: diatoms

3) In which of the following organisms the cell wall is composed of two thin overlapping shells, which fit together like a soap case?
(a) Diatoms
(b) Golden algae
(c) Slime moulds
(d) Gonyaulax
Answer: Diatoms

4) Chrysophytes are
(a) planktons
(b) nektons
(c) benthic organisms
(d) active organisms
Answer: planktons

5) Dinoflagellates are mostly …A… and …B… Here A and B refer to
(a) A-freshwater; B-chemosynthetic
(b) A-marine; B-photosynthetic
(c) A-terrestrial; B-photosynthetic
(d) A-marine; B-chemosynthetic
Answer: A-marine; B-photosynthetic

6) In which of the following groups, the cell wall has a stiff cellulose plate on the outer surface?
(a) Diatoms
(b) Red algae
(c) Dinoflagellates
(d) Slime moulds
Answer: Dinoflagellates

7) Which of the following is a red dinoflagellate?
(a) Euglena
(b) Diatoms
(c) Gonyaulax
(d) Plasmodium
Answer: Gonyaulax

8) Red tides in warm coastal water develop due to the presence of
(a) dinoflagellates
(b) euglenoid forms
(c) diatoms and desmids
(d) slime moulds
Answer: dinoflagellates

9) Which protists release toxins that may even kill fish and other marine animals?
(a) Euglena
(b) Gonvaulax
(c) Paramecium
(d) Plasmodium
Answer: Gonvaulax

10) Plant-like nutrition is present in
(a) Amoeba
(b) Paramecium
(c) Euglena
(d) Plasmodium
Euglena

Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification MCQs SET(G)

1) The free-living thalloid body of the slime mould is known as
(a) protonema
(b) Plasmodium
(c) fruiting body
(d) mycelium
Answer: Plasmodium

2) Under favourable conditions slime moulds form
(a) protonema
(b) Plasmodium
(c) mycelium
(d) fruiting bodies
Answer: Plasmodium

3) During unfavourable conditions, slime moulds form …A…, which are …B… and survive for many years. Identify A and B to complete the given statement.
(a) A-zoospores; B-round in shape
(b) A-endospores; B-hexagonal in shape
(c) A-akinetes; B-highly resistant
(d) A-spores; B-highly resistant
Answer: A-spores; B-highly resistant

4) Protozoans are
(a) heterotrophs
(b) autotrophs
(c) producer
(d) saprophytes
Answer: heterotrophs

5) Which of the following group is considered primitive relatives of animals?
(a) Chrysophytes
(b) Protozoans
(c) Euglenoids
(d) Slime moulds
Answer: Protozoans

6) Protozoans are divided into _ groups.
(a) three
(b) four
(c) two
(d) eight
Answer: four

7 Which of the following groups belong to protozoans?
(a) Amoeboid, flagellates, ciliates, sporozoans
(b) Diatoms, amoeboids, ciliates, sporozoans
(c) Desmids, ciliates, flagellates, amoeboid
(d) Dinoflagellates, ciliates, Plasmodium, amoeboid
Answer: Amoeboid, flagellates, ciliates, sporozoans

8) Fungi that absorb nutrients directly from the cytoplasm of the living host are called
(a) saprophytes
(b) parasites
(c) symbionts
(d) mycorrhiza
Answer: parasites

9) Fungi that absorb soluble organic matter from dead substrates are called
(a) saprophytes
(b) parasites
(c) obligate parasite
(d) lichens
Answer: saprophytes

10) Lichens are mutualistic and symbiotic associations between
(a) mycobiont and virus
(b) mycobiont and phycobiont
(c) mycobiont and root of higher plants
(d) mycobiont and mosses
Answer: mycobiont and phycobiont

Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification MCQs SET(H)

1) Ascomycetes are commonly known as
(a) toadstool
(b) sac fungi
(c) imperfect fungi
(d) bracket fungi
Answer: sac fungi

2) Yeast and Penicillium are examples of class
(a) Phycomycetes
(b) Ascomycetes
(c) Deuteromycetes
(d) Basidiomycetes
Answer: Ascomycetes

3) Members of Ascomycetes are
(a) sporophytic
(b) decomposers
(c) parasitic or coprophilous
(d) All of the above
Answer: All of the above

4) Which of the following fungus is used extensively in biochemical and genetic work?
(a) Neurospora
(b) Mucor
(c) Rhizopus
(d) Aspergillus
Answer: Neurospora

5) Identify the edible and delicate Ascomycetes members.
(a) Agaricus and Puccinia
(b) Morels and truffles
(c) Puffball and Agaricus
(d) Puffballs and mushrooms
Answer: Morels and truffles

6) The imperfect fungi, which are decomposers of litter and help in mineral cycling belong to
(a) Deuteromycetes
(b) Basidiomycetes
(c) Phycomycetes
(d) Ascomycetes
Answer: Deuteromycetes

7) Deuteromycetes reproduce only by asexual spores known as
(a) conidia
(b) endospores
(c) zoospores
(d) heterocyst
Answer: conidia

8) Sexual reproduction is present in all fungi classes, except
(a) Ascomycetes
(b) Phycomycetes
(c) Basidiomycetes
(d) Deuteromycetes
Answer: Deuteromycetes

9) All the given fungi belong to Deuteromycetes, except
(a) Alternaria
(b) Colletotrichum
(c) Trichoderma
(d) Ustilago
Answer: Ustilago

10) Insectivorous plants are principally
(a) autotrophic
(b) partially heterotrophic
(c) parasitic
(d) pathogenic
Answer: partially heterotrophic

Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification MCQs SET(I)

1) Fungi show vegetative reproduction by all of the following methods except
(a) by fragmentation
(b) by fission
(c) by budding
(d) by protonema
Answer: by protonema

2) Fungi show asexual reproduction by all of the following kinds of spores except
(a) conidia
(b) oospores
(c) sporangiospores
(d) zoospores
Answer: oospores

3) Fungi show sexual reproduction by all of the following processes except
(a) oospores
(b) ascospores
(c) basidiospores
(d) zoospores
Answer: zoospores

4) In fungi, the various types of spores are produced in distinct structures known as
(a) fruiting body
(b) spore sac
(c) peristome
(d) pollen sac
Answer: fruiting body

5) In fungi, the fusion of protoplasms between two motile or non-motile gametes is called
(a) plasmogamy
(b) plasmokinesis
(c) karyogamy
(d) cytokinesis
Answer: Answer: plasmogamy

6 ) All of the following fungi belong to Phycomycetes, except
(a) Rhizopus
(b) Mucor
(c) Albugo
(d) Agaricus
Answer: Agaricus

7) The hyphae of Rhizopus are
(a) unbranched, aseptate, and uninucleate
(b) branched, aseptate, and multinucleate
(c) branched, septate, and uninucleate
(d) unbranched, septate, and coenocytic
Answer: branched, aseptate, and multinucleate

8) Which of the following are examples of insectivorous plants?
(a) Bladderwort
(b) Venus fly trap
(c) Nepenthes
(d) All of these
Answer: All of these

9) Cuscuta is a/an
(a) parasite
(b) pathogen
(c) saprophyte
(d) autotroph
Answer: parasite

10) The Tobacco mosaic virus is
(a) spherical
(b) rod-shaped
(c) cuboidal
(d) oval
Answer: rod-shaped

Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification MCQs SET (J)

1) The protein coat of a virus/ is known as
(a) nucleoid
(b) capsid
(c) capsomere
(d) outer envelope
Answer: capsid

2) The subunit of the capsid is called
(a) capsomere
(b) core
(c) nucleoside
(d) nucleotide
Answer: capsomere

3) Viruses are also known as
(a) nucleoprotein particles
(b) virion
(c) lipoprotein particles
(d) core
Answer: nucleoprotein particles

4) The genetic material of the rabies virus is
(a) double-stranded RNA
(b) single-stranded RNA
(c) double-stranded DNA
(d) single-stranded DNA
Answer: single-stranded RNA

5) Which of the following groups of diseases is caused by viruses?
(a) Mumps, smallpox, herpes, influenza
(b) AIDS, diabetes, herpes, tuberculosis
(c) Anthrax, cholera, tetanus, tuberculosis
(d) Cholera, tetanus, smallpox, influenza
Answer: Mumps, smallpox, herpes, influenza

6) In plants, mosaic formation, leaf rolling and curling, yellowing, and vein clearing are the symptoms of
(a) viral diseases
(b) bacterial diseases
(c) protozoan diseases
(d) fungal diseases
Answer: viral diseases

7) Which of the following plant viruses has DNA?
(a) Tobacco mosaic virus
(b) Potato mosaic virus
(c) Tomato mosaic virus
(d) Cauliflower mosaic virus
Answer: Cauliflower mosaic virus

8) Bacteriophages are
(a) bacteria that attack viruses
(b) viruses that attack bacteria
(c) free-living viruses
(d) free-living bacteria
Answer: viruses that attack bacteria

9) A new infectious agent that is smaller than a virus is
(a) prion
(b) viroid
(c) bacteria
(d) mycoplasma
Answer: viroid

10) Viroids have
(a) dsDNA enclosed by a protein coat
(b) ssDNA enclosed by a protein coat
(c) ssRNA not enclosed by a protein coat
(d) dsRNA enclosed by a protein coat
Answer: ssRNA not enclosed by a protein coat

Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification MCQs SET(K)

1) Who proposed two kingdom systems of classification and named kingdoms – Plantae and Animalia?
(a) Carolus Linnaeus
(b) RH Whittaker
(c) Carl Woese
(d) Herbert Copeland
Answer: Carolus Linnaeus

2) Which of the following characters served as the criteria for Whittaker’s five-kingdom system of classification?
(a) Cell structure
(b) Body organization and mode of nutrition
(c) Reproduction and phylogenetic relationships
(d) All of the above
Answer: All of the above

3) In the five-kingdom system of classification of RH Whittaker, how many kingdoms contain eukaryotes?
(a) Four kingdoms
(b) One kingdom
(c) Two kingdoms
(d) Three kingdoms
Answer: Four kingdoms

4) In the five-kingdom classification, Chlamydomonas and Chlorella are included in
(a) Plantae
(b) Algae
(c) Protista
(d) Monera
Answer: Plantae

5) _ include blue-green algae, which have chlorophyll-a similar to green plants.
(a) Chemosynthetic autotrophic bacteria
(b) Photosynthetic autotrophic bacteria
(c) Protista
(d) Saprophytic
Answer: Photosynthetic autotrophic bacteria

6) Slime moulds are
(a) pathogenic
(b) parasite
(c) saprophytic protists
(d) autotrophic
Answer: saprophytic protists

7) Mycorrhizae are mutualistic and symbiotic associations between
(a) fungi and vascular plants
(b) fungi and non-vascular plants
(c) fungi and roots of higher plants
(d) fungi and bryophytes
Answer: fungi and roots of higher plants

8) Mycorrhiza promotes plant growth by
(a) absorbing inorganic ions from the soil
(b) helping the plant in utilizing atmospheric nitrogen
(c) protecting the plant from infection
(d) serving as a plant growth regulator
Answer: absorbing inorganic ions from the soil

9) The genetic material
(a) ds or ss DNA only
(b) ds or ss RNA only
(c) DNA or RNA (Both ds and ss)
(d) ssDNA or ssRNA
Answer: DNA or RNA (Both ds and ss)

10) The advantage of fungus in a lichen is
(a) food
(b) anchoring
(c) mineral absorption
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Answer: Both (b) and (c)

Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification MCQs SET(L)

1) Plants show ……… in their life cycle.
(a) only sexual phase
(b) only asexual phase
(c) alternation of generation
(d) None of these
Answer: alternation of generation

2) Which of the given statements best describes the gametophyte in the alternation of generation of a plant’s life cycle?
(a) Generation that produces gametes
(b) Generation that produces spores
(c) Generation that has xylem and phloem
(d) The diploid generation
Answer: The generation that produces gametes

3) Which of these best describes the saprophytic generation in a plant’s life cycle?
(a) The haploid generation
(b) Generation that produces gametes
(c) Generation that produces spores
(d) Generation that has xylem and phloem
Answer: The generation that produces spores

4) Kingdom-Animalia includes
(a) heterotrophic organisms
(b) eukaryotic organisms
(c) multicellular organism
(d) All of these
Answer: All of these

5) The reserve food material of animals is
(a) glycogen or animal fat
(b) glucose
(c) cellulose
(d) chitin
Answer: glycogen or animal fat

6) Viruses and viroids are non-cellular organisms, which are not characterised in the classification of
(a) Whittaker
(b) Aristotle
(c) Linnaeus
(d) Watson
Answer: Whittaker

7) Viruses did not find a place in classification since
(a) they are not truly living
(b) they are non-cellular
(c) they are obligate parasite
(d) they are pathogenic
Answer: they are not truly living

8) Viruses are non-cellular organisms but replicate themselves once they infect the host cell. To which of the following kingdom viruses belong?
(a) Monera
(b) Protista
(c) Fungi
(d) None of these
Answer: None of these

9) The common cold is a
(a) bacterial disease
(b) viral disease
(c) protozoan disease
(d) fungal disease
Answer: viral disease

10) Which of the following phenomenon proves that viruses are living?
(a) They carry metabolic activity
(b) They carry anaerobic respiration
(c) They multiply in host cells
(d) They cause infection
Answer: They multiply in host cells

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